Thursday, July 12, 2012
ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE FRAMEWORKS
The most common industry-standard EA Frameworks briefly presented next are: The Zachman Framework, The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF), Enterprise Architecture Body of Knowledge (EABOK), Generalized Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology (GERAM), Reference Model of Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP), The CIMOSA Framework, The Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) Framework, Other Government Enterprise Architecture Frameworks, ITIL Enterprise Architecture Framework and Microsoft Enterprise Architecture Framework.
The Zachman Framework
This framework provides a formal and well-structured way of viewing and defining an enterprise on the basis of a two dimensional classification matrix. Each row represents a type of stakeholder, these being: contextual, conceptual, logical, physical, and detailed. Each column denotes the aspects of the architecture, such as: ‘Why’ (represents the motivation), ‘How’ (denotes the functional description), ‘What’ (represents the data description), ‘Who’ (represents the people), ‘Where’ (denotes the network), and ‘When’ (defines the time).
The resulting matrix is a template that must be filled in by the goals, rules, processes, material, roles, locations and events specifically required by the organization.
The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF)
This framework provides a comprehensive approach to the design, implementation, and governance of an enterprise information architecture at four levels or domains: Business Domain (business strategy, governance, organization,, and key business processes), Applications Domain (blueprints for the individual application systems to be deployed and their interactions), Data Domain (logical and physical data assets), and Technology Domain (hardware, software, and network facilities required to support the deployment of core and mission-critical applications).
Enterprise Architecture Body of Knowledge (EABOK)
This is a guide to enterprise architecture produced by MIT. It treats enterprise architecture as not including merely diagrams and technical descriptions, but gives a holistic view that includes U.S. legislative requirements and guidance, as well as giving technologists a better understanding of business needs on the basis of the value chain concept of Professor Porter.
Generalized Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology (GERAM)
This is a generalized enterprise architecture framework for enterprise integration and business process engineering. It defines the enterprise related generic concepts recommended for use in enterprise integration projects. These concepts include: a life cycle approach in identifying the life-cycle phases for any enterprise (from entity conception to its final end), enterprise entity types and enterprise modelling with business process modelling, integrated model representation in different model views, and modelling languages for different users, such as business users, system designers, IT modelling specialists, etc.
Reference Model of Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP)
This framework supports distribution, inter-working, platform and technology independence, and portability, together with an enterprise architecture framework for the specification of open distributed processing systems. It provides five generic and complementary viewpoints on the system and its environment: enterprise viewpoint, information viewpoint, engineering viewpoint, computational viewpoint, and technology viewpoint.
The CIMOSA Framework
CIMOSA is a well known framework which supports all phases of the CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing) system life-cycle from requirements definition, through design specification, implementation description and execution of the daily enterprise operation.
CIMOSA incorporates an event-driven, process-based modelling approach with the goal to cover essential enterprise aspects in one integrated model. The main aspects are the functional, behavioural, resource, information and organizational aspect.
Architecture (FEA) Framework Enterprise
The FEA framework is a U.S. Government standard which is used to facilitate shared development of common processes and information among U.S. Federal agencies and other government agencies. On the basis of this framework, a given architecture can be partitioned into four layers, as depicted next.
Layer 1: Business Architecture. Represents the business functions of the organization and the information it uses.
Layer 2: Data Architecture. Defines how data are stored, managed and used in a system.
Layer 3: Application Architecture. Consists of the logical systems that manage the data in the data architecture and support the business architecture.
Layer 4: Technology Architecture. Describes current and future infrastructure (hardware and software) that support the application systems in the application architecture.
Other Government Enterprise Architecture Frameworks
There is a set of various other government sponsored enterprise architecture frameworks, such as the ones listed below, which are beyond the scope of this paper. These are: (a) Department of Defense (U.S.) Architecture, (b) NIST (U.S.) Enterprise Architecture Model, (c) British Ministry of Defense Architectural Framework (d) The NATO Architecture Framework and (e) Government Enterprise (Australia, Queensland) Architecture.
ITIL Enterprise Architecture Framework
This framework is based on the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) which contains a set of concepts and policies for managing Information Technology (IT) infrastructure, development and operations. ITIL includes five core components: Service Strategy, Service Design, Service Transition, Service Operation, and Continual Service Improvement.
Service Strategy: Service strategy encompasses a framework to build best practice in developing a long term service strategy. It covers many topics including: general strategy, competition and market space, service provider types, service management as a strategic asset, organization design and development, etc.
Service Design: The design of IT services includes design of architecture, processes, policies, documentation, capacity management, IT service continuity, Information Security, supplier management, key roles and responsibilities of staff and future business requirements, etc.
Service Transition: Service transition covers topics such as: Service Asset and Configuration Management, Transition Planning and Support, Release and deployment management, Change Management, etc.
Service Operation: Service Operations include monitoring of problems and balance between service reliability and cost, balancing conflicting goals, Event management, incident management, problem management, etc.
Continual Service Improvement (CSI): The goal of Continual Service Improvement is to align and realign IT Services to changing business needs by identifying and implementing improvements to the IT services that support the Business Processes.
Microsoft Enterprise Architecture Framework
This EA framework
(1) The Plan Phase. The activities of this phase ensure that your IT services are planned effectively so that they are implemented successfully.
(2) The Deliver Phase. The activities of this phase ensure that your IT services are developed effectively, are deployed successfully, and are ready for Operations.
(3) The Operate Phase. The activities of this phase ensure that your IT services are operated, maintained, and supported in a way that meets your business needs and expectations.
(4) The Manage Layer. The activities (IT governance, risk, compliance, roles and responsibilities, change management, configuration, etc.) of this phase provide operating principles and best practices to ensure that your IT investments deliver expected business value at an acceptable level of risk.
John Kyriazoglou, CICA, B.A(Hon-University of Tororonto), is an International IT and Management Consultant, author of the book ‘IT STRATEGIC & OPERATIONAL CONTROLS’ (published in 2010 by www.itgovernance.co.uk), and co-author of the book CORPORATE CONTROLS’, (published in 2012 by www.theiic.org), with Dr. F. Nasuti and Dr. C. Kyriazoglou).